The principle of operation of reverse osmosis systems - the pros and cons of the water treatment method and installation diagram

Does the quality of the water flowing from your pipeline leave much to be desired? Then pay attention to reverse osmosis - such a system improves water purification, which is practically completely free from any impurities. This technology is by far the most advanced and widespread. It has been used since the 70s of the last century to obtain drinking and pure liquids intended for industry, medicine and other needs.

What is reverse osmosis?

Osmosis for water treatment is a process in which a solvent passes under pressure through a membrane (semi-permeable) from a more concentrated solution to a less concentrated one. At the same time, the filter membrane passes water, but does not pass some substances not dissolved in it. Even the ancient Greeks discovered that sea water undergoes desalination if it is passed through the walls of a vessel made of wax.

Reverse osmosis filter

Due to the fact that the reverse osmosis system was improved, filters based on it began to be used not only in industrial conditions, but also in domestic. Thanks to this, thousands of similar filter units began to be installed in different regions of the world. By its properties, the liquid obtained at the outlet is very close to the meltwater of the glaciers. A reverse osmosis water filter is an installation that can remove small molecules, dyes, sodium ions, sulfates, hardness salts and other particles, the size of which is from 0.001 to 0.0001 microns.

Design

If you are interested in the reverse osmosis installation, then before making such a purchase, familiarize yourself with its design. It is a device consisting of several cartridges with a membrane and filters, and a tank designed for purified water. Having decided to use such a system, keep in mind that the storage tank in most cases is designed for 8-12 liters.

A tap of purified drinking water crashes into the kitchen worktop or sink. Separately, the buyer can order the installation of additional cartridges. One of them is a mineralizer, which enriches water with magnesium, calcium and sodium. The second is a bioceramic cartridge, used to restore the structure of (natural) water.

An additional guarantee of the purity of the water obtained is the post-filter - it is necessary to ensure the quality of the clean liquid when the liquid in the tank begins to stagnate, for example, during breaks during its consumption. The entire set listed is easily installed under the sink of any type, although its dimensions are not so small. Do not forget to care for such an aggregate. If the water being cleaned has an aftertaste or smell, then the problem often lies in the membrane, which is dirty.

Reverse osmosis membrane

This semipermeable material is very important in the system - only oxygen and water molecules can pass through it. If the filtering surface of the membrane is contaminated, the process of cleaning the liquid will completely stop, therefore, the system uses preliminary filtration of the incoming liquid, consisting of 2-3 steps. The membrane design itself consists of a package having three sealed edges - the fourth similar element is attached to a perforated pipe to drain the filtrates.

Functionality and Features

The reverse osmosis unit, depending on the model, has a capacity of 170 to 250 l / day and a resource in the range of 4000-15000 l. If the family consists of 4 people, then a device with a resource of 5000 liters is quite enough for 1.5-2 years of operation. At the same time, it requires some care, for example, every year you need to change the finish filters, and every six months - pre-filter cartridges. The water that is obtained at the outlet is purified both from impurities of a chemical origin and from viruses and bacteria, but not any.

Harm or good

This method has its pros and cons, which must be taken into account. One of the significant drawbacks is that the installation removes from the water those beneficial inclusions in which our body feels the need, for example, calcium, magnesium, etc. On the other hand, a high degree of purification from impurities is no less useful for the body, especially since this indicator in household units reaches 98%. True, there are very few mineral salts in such a liquid, so there is no specific opinion on the harm or its health benefits.

Some doctors are sure that the use of such a purified liquid can have a harmful effect on the cardiovascular system. Mineralization will help to solve the problem by installing a special cartridge. Despite the fact that a filter with the described technology is more expensive than a flow-through counterpart, the difference in costs over time will be insignificant.

Reverse osmosis scheme

Membrane technology provides the ability to purify tap water from various inclusions not only efficiently, but also quickly. The liquid is filtered under high pressure using a special membrane. For this, 1-2 preliminary filters are located at the system inlet, the function of which is to delay dissolved residual chlorine, rust and sand particles.

At the next stage, the water enters the storage tank, from where it passes through 1-2 finishing filters and goes to the user. Moreover, the last step is a mechanical cleaning filter, which is made on the basis of compressed activated carbon. Water with a high concentration of inclusions is drained so that the membrane does not clog prematurely. Such a system allows you to clean the liquid from such inclusions:

  • manganese;
  • chlorine;
  • organic compounds;
  • pesticides;
  • iron;
  • nitrates;
  • lead;
  • herbicides;
  • phosphates;
  • cadmium and others

Operating principle

Having decided to buy a filter for water purification, first get acquainted with the principle of its operation. This unit is connected to the water supply, from where the source of cleaning fluid comes from. First, water is pretreated, for which several filters are used, the task of which is to prepare the incoming liquid before passing it in front of the membrane. The latter is an expensive replacement product, the life of which may depend on various factors.

Then, under the influence of the pressure difference, the incoming water is purified by filtration through an artificial porous membrane - one or more. The stream eventually splits into two. One of them is represented by crystal clear water flowing into a special tank, the other by liquid with increased density, which is sent to the drainage system. The basic principle of operation of such a filter system consists of:

  1. Pretreatments.
  2. The passage of fluid through the membrane.
  3. Clean water entering the drive.
  4. Finish cleaning.
  5. Pouring purified liquid through a separate tap into any container: bottle, jar, glass, etc.

Installation

In general, the installation of reverse osmosis is not a difficult process, but if you do not have the minimum skills to work with plumbing, then it is better to entrust this matter to professionals. A properly installed system will provide you with clean water all year round and you will not have any problems with its quality. It can be mounted both vertically and horizontally. If you decide to purchase such a filter, then read the brief instructions for installing it:

  1. Shut off the water supply, make a tie-in by pre-wrapping all threaded connections with fum tape.
  2. Disconnect the feed line from the cold water tap, then attach and secure the tie-in.
  3. Install a drinking water tap on the sink using the pipe retainers and mounting nuts.
  4. Mount the clamp on the drain pipe. To do this, pre-drill a hole in the pipe (drain) around which stick the protective rubber.
  5. At the end, install the accumulation bank and run the filter.

How to choose reverse osmosis

Before you buy the installation in an online store with home delivery / mail or a specialized outlet in Moscow, St. Petersburg or another city in the country, determine its specific model. First, determine the optimal degree of purification. The number of modules (steps) can reach seven. A simple system consists of three pre-filters, a membrane and a carbon filter for finishing. The most complex design involves the installation of a mineralizer and bioceramic activator.

In addition, determine the volume of the storage tank. To do this, consider not only the needs of your family, but also the size of the space under the sink, otherwise its installation will be too complicated or even impossible. For a large family, in which they like to cook often, it is better to opt for an aggregate whose productivity is at least 5 l / hour.

Comparison of reverse osmosis filters

You need to buy water treatment systems in official stores where the products of famous companies are sold - they often offer a discount there. Foreign-made filters are more expensive, but they are not always designed for tap water in Russian cities. Plus, there may be interruptions in the supply of consumables.

The key manufacturing enterprises that produce filters for the domestic consumer are Atoll, Barrier, Aquaphor. Among them, the filters of the last two companies can be bought for about 6-10 thousand rubles - it all depends on the configuration you have chosen. The average cost of Atoll filters reaches 10-12 thousand rubles, which is due to the use of American components.

Reverse Osmosis or Flow Filter

This question does not have to be set too harshly - it all depends on the situation. The main thing is that the selected filter meets your requirements. To do this, you will have to turn over the water for express analysis, which can be ordered from any major filter manufacturer. If it turns out that you have to deal with mechanical impurities, then it is better to choose a flow filter. If a bunch of harmful impurities is found in the liquid, then another option will be more suitable.

Filter Price

When ordering a filter to make tap water more potable, do a price comparison. Performing such an action today thanks to the development and spread of the Internet is not difficult. This will take you 10-15 minutes, but the main thing is that you can save by choosing the right filter at the lowest possible price. Comparison of offers in several online stores in Moscow for the filter Akvafor DVM-101S Morion:

Title

Price in rubles

CJSC Aquaphor Marketing

7900

Sinks-S

6900

Media Markt

6900

Building Solo

6900

Ecoboss

6990

Watch the video: Membrane Bioreactor MBR Process Animation (February 2020).