In the treatment of inflammatory processes in the body, Hydrocortisone in ampoules is prescribed - a broad-spectrum drug. It contains a hormone that cannot be used for a long time in therapy without the supervision of a doctor, so you should study the instructions for using the product, find out the side effects, dosage and contraindications to maintain health.
What is hydrocortisone
From a medical point of view, hydrocortisone as a substance is a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It refers to glucocorticoids, looks like a white bitter powder. For therapy, a solution of hydrocortisone is used - acetate or sodium hemisuccinate, mixed in a special way with water, alcohol. There are several drug formats, but the most common type of ampoule is. The hormone is able to relieve manifestations of allergies, block foci of an inflammatory nature, and has an antiexudative effect.
Hydrocortisone is used to relieve shock, normalize immunity in autoimmune diseases. The advantage of using the drug is its high digestibility, because the main active substance is already produced by the human body. Most of the substance binds to blood plasma, according to studies, it penetrates into all body systems, is concentrated in the liver and excreted by the kidneys.
Indications for use
In medical practice, hydrocortisone ampoules are used in different ways. Here are a few of the goals:
- ophthalmology is an effective drug in the treatment of mucous membranes;
- allergies, bronchial asthma;
- coma caused by hemorrhage inside the brain;
- a sharp decrease in blood pressure;
- myocardial infarction;
- impaired liver function from intoxication;
- swelling of the oral cavity;
- poisoning with drugs or reagents;
- exposure to the patient's body of extreme temperatures, bites of poisonous insects;
- adrenal cortex dysfunction;
- blood oncology;
- pain with bursitis;
- inflammatory joint diseases;
- lupus erythematosus;
- for electrophoresis, ultrasound and in combination with physiotherapy.
The ampoule format contains 2.5 ml of active suspension. 1 ml of it accounts for 25 mg of hydrocortisone acetate, 0.2 ml of propylene glycol, 20 mg of sorbitol, 10 mg of povidone, 1.4 mg of sodium chloride. Benzyl alcohol and special purified water for injection are isolated from excipients in the contents of the ampoule to dilute all active and additional ingredients.
According to the pharmacological action, the hydrocortisone ampoules are called anti-inflammatory, desensitizing (inhibiting allergy reactions or preventing them) and anti-allergic drug. In addition, the content is able to suppress the body's defenses - this is called immunosuppressive activity. Due to the active substance, the ampoules of the drug help, inhibit the movement of leukocytes to inflammation, and make macrophages incapable of phagocytosis and the formation of certain substances.
The contents of the ampoules stabilizes the membranes of the lysosomes (parts of the cell) to reduce the concentration of enzymes in the area of inflammation. In allergic reactions, the drug weakens the permeability of capillaries, which is too high due to the formation of histamines. In addition, ampoules inhibit the activity of fibroblasts and collagen formation. The tool reduces the activity of the enzyme phospholipase, which reduces the synthesis of other substances that affect the development of allergies.
Hydrocortisone ampoules suppress the formation of antibodies, reduce the number of freely moving lymphocytes. The drug affects the metabolism of BZHU, promotes the active movement of amino acids to the liver, increases the activity of enzymes. Inside the liver, the contents of the ampoules enhances the production of glycogen, stimulates the formation of glucose from protein products.
Hydrocortisone activates lipolysis (the breakdown of fats), but due to increased production of insulin, fat accumulates due to stimulation of lipogenesis. The substance promotes the excretion of potassium and calcium ions, retains sodium ions and water. It has the function of suppressing growth in children, high doses increase the excitability of brain tissue, lower the threshold for seizures.
Instructions for use
There are several formats of hydrocortisone:
- eye ointment;
- powder for intramuscular or intravenous injection;
Instructions for use of each format state the need for consultation with a doctor before use. Long-term administration of ampoules with hydrocortisone should be accompanied by the use of potassium to make up for its deficiency, to eliminate the possibility of an element deficiency.
Doctors, when prescribing the drug, monitor patients' blood pressure, blood glucose and potassium levels, its coagulability, diuresis and proper body weight. During treatment, vaccinations are not carried out, the prescribed dose of the drug is gradually reduced in order to prevent secondary hypocorticism. During therapy, infection with infectious diseases may occur. Ampoules with liquid contents are dispensed only by prescription, stored for up to five years in a dark, cool place.
Hydrocortisone acetate in ampoules can be administered intramuscularly or intraarticularly to adults. In the first case, the drug penetrates deep into the gluteus muscle dropwise with a dose of 50-300 mg, a volume of not more than 1500 mg can be administered per day. Before the injection, the ampoules are shaken so that the suspension becomes uniform in consistency. In acute conditions, 100-150 mg is administered dropwise every four hours for two days, then the frequency is increased to 8-12 hours.
The children's dosage is up to 2 mg per kilogram of weight every four hours, it is optimal to administer up to 9 mg per kilogram per day. Inside the joint cavity, the contents are injected dropwise up to 25 mg or 1 ml of suspension (depending on the size of the joints) weekly. The course of treatment is up to 5 injections. The components begin to act 6-25 hours after administration, continue to affect the body from a few days to weeks.
Hydrocortisone for inhalation is used to treat bronchitis and other pulmonary diseases. Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, the medicine successfully eliminates bronchial asthma, bronchitis with asthmatic syndrome. The doctor prescribes no more than 20-30 mg of the amount per day for the use of hydrocortisone for nebulizers. A medication for instillation in the sinuses of the nose dilutes sputum and mucus, kills germs, strengthens the body, reduces the intensity of skin itching.
Mix the solution for inhalation in a proportion of 25 ml of hydrocortisone per 3 ml of saline. To treat ailments in a child, the doctor reduces the dosage in accordance with individual indications. It is recommended to do no more than two inhalation procedures per day. You need to breathe not too deep so as not to cough. Inhalations can be combined with the simultaneous administration of dioxidine to enhance therapy.
Hydrocortisone intramuscularly, intraarticularly or in the form of inhalation procedures is prohibited for the following categories of patients with the presence of:
- acute forms of infectious diseases;
- high blood pressure;
- diabetes mellitus;
- pregnancy, lactation;
- mental disorders;
- digestive tract ulcers;
- over 65 years old.
Side effects and overdose
When using Hydrocortisone ampoules, the following side effects can be observed, undesirable for any patient:
- menstrual irregularities;
- psychical deviations;
- Itsenko-Cushing complex.
An overdose with an increased dose or prolonged use of the drug and its accumulation leads to disorders requiring treatment according to the symptoms:
- increase in pressure;
- ulcerative bleeding;
- exacerbation of chronic infections;
- Itsenko-Cushing's syndrome develops.
According to the instructions for use, hydrocortisone in the format of the release of ampoules interacts with other drugs as follows:
- weakens properties in the presence of barbiturates;
- admission of diuretics at the same time as hydrocortisone ampoules negatively affects potassium metabolism;
- reduces the effectiveness of hypoglycemic agents.
You can buy analogues of Hydrocortisone ampoules at more favorable prices in the online store or ordered through the catalog through the pharmacy department:
- Solu-cortef lyophilisate.
The cost depends on the manufacturer (Russian, foreign) and the level of pharmacies. The approximate price on the Internet is from 128 rubles for 10 ampoules in a cardboard pack of 2.5 ml each. In the usual pharmacy department, this cost increases by several percent, but there is no need to pay for delivery. The price will be 147-155 rubles for the packaging of ampoules.Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.