If you find symptoms of cold dermatitis in a child or adult on the skin, specific treatment will be required. An unpleasant disease is considered a subspecies of allergic urticaria, can occur with complications and requires medical treatment. Doctors diagnose dermatitis by externally manifested signs, blood tests and pH-metry.
What is cold dermatitis
In simple terms, cold dermatitis is an atypical allergy to frost, which manifests itself in the form of inflammation. The response of the skin during cooling is red itchy spots, flaky and cracking, runny nose, conjunctivitis. Cold-type dermatitis occurs on the face, auricles, neck, arms, legs, knees, in the folds of the body. It is important to correctly diagnose allergies, identify the causes and eliminate the symptoms.
Symptoms of a Cold Allergy
Allocate common symptoms of an allergy to cold, characteristic in its localization on any parts of the body of an adult and a child:
- dry scaly dark red or burgundy spots up to five centimeters in size;
- itching, burning, cracks, a crust forms;
- sneezing, runny nose, burning in eyes, lacrimation;
- may be accompanied by conjunctivitis of non-infectious origin.
How does an allergy to cold manifest: after a cold exposure, the skin is covered with spots that pass in a warm room, but are replaced by increased rhinitis. If a person with signs of allergy in frosty conditions stays long, he will begin to choke - when inhaling cold air, asthma will appear, his mucous membrane will swell, and Quincke's edema will develop.
An atypical cold allergy in the hands of an adult and a child is manifested by standard signs: the exposed parts of the limbs (or cooled for a long time) turn red, become slightly swollen. With continued cold exposure, itchy small blisters of various sizes appear, such as a nettle burn or mosquito bite, midges. Over time, they crack, form bubbles, burst, exposing wet areas of the skin.
On the face
Cold allergies on the face are considered the most common due to the low protection of this part of the body from frost. The manifestation of dermatitis is possible even in the fall - wind, frost, and a decrease in temperature affect the appearance of red or pink itchy spots with a diameter of 1-4 cm. Cold urticaria can make the face rough. Symptoms of dermatitis in the cold immediately appear - after 5-10 minutes, with continued cooling intensify.
The spots increase in size, form foci with a bright border of their relief, become bluish in color. Then they develop into vesicular eruptions, which become wet and itchy. After returning to heat, the dermatitis disappears, the skin turns pale, but with prolonged exposure to frost, swelling of the larynx, lips, mucous membranes and suffocation are added. On the ears, the manifestation of cold type dermatitis is similar to the face, but they freeze even faster. If measures are not taken, tissue necrosis may develop.
An atypical allergy to cold feet is rare because the skin is protected by clothing. The cold affects the lower legs, the inside of the hips and the area under the knees - the skin is covered with hives. Red itchy spots do not crack, do not get wet, pass an hour later after the elimination of an adverse factor. With prolonged cold exposure, drowsiness, dry vomiting, dizziness, loss of appetite, and a slight increase in temperature may develop.
Causes of Cold Allergies
Today, dermatologists and allergists continue to study the causes of cold allergies. There are three theories why frost is so detrimental to the human body:
- Cold exposure forms a rapid spasm of peripheral capillaries, as a result, the blood supply to the epidermis is disturbed and an inflammatory reaction develops.
- With a decrease in temperature in some people, the proteins of the cellular structure of the skin combine. The resulting substances are strong irritants of the body, provoke the production of histamines and inflammatory mediators, and dermatitis develops. When heated, unstable compounds break up, the allergy disappears.
- People with a cold allergy have inadequate fat or sparse coverage of the skin surface. When cooled, moisture evaporates from it intensely, dehydrated cells exfoliate, the surface crackes, leading to dermatitis.
The main provoking factors for the occurrence of dermatitis from the cold are called by the doctors the following:
- violation of the immune system;
- bad habits;
- gastrointestinal tract diseases: ulcer, dysbiosis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis;
- foci of chronic infection: sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, periodontitis, caries;
- cold effects on internal organs and infections: cystitis, pyelonephritis, salpingitis, vaginitis;
- old age or, conversely, infants suffer from a cold manifestation of an allergy, but with aging this goes away, as does diathesis;
- women suffer from dermatitis more often.
You can independently determine the tendency of your body to cold type dermatitis in order to avoid consequences and problems in the future. To study, press a piece of snow or ice for a short period of time against the elbow. With reddening of the site, we can talk about the danger of developing dermatitis. In addition to this test, you should pay attention to the skin reaction during cold exposure - red spots and dryness indicate a tendency to dermatitis.
Diagnosis of cold dermatitis
The disease cannot be called dangerous, but without treatment, dermatitis brings patients discomfort due to the unaesthetic appearance of the skin. Plus, there is a threat of skin infection through cracks and the formation of age spots and scars after healing. Diagnosis of cold dermatitis is carried out by a dermatologist. After examining and questioning the patient, he will conduct a pH-metry, establish the acid-base balance of the skin and make a dermatoscopy, examine the epidermis to exclude oncology.
By pH-metry, you can see what could cause dermatitis, exclude the influence of the fungus or the manifestation of psoriasis. Some doctors prescribe a patient examination with a gastroenterologist to detect chronic diseases. When studying allergies, doctors can send the patient to a urologist, gynecologist or otolaryngologist. In severe cases, you will need to donate blood, urine and feces to study the possible causes of dermatitis.
Cold Allergy Treatment
A variety of methods and techniques include medical treatment for allergies to cold. Complex therapy in the form of taking pills, applying external ointments and getting rid of chronic diseases will help to cope with the signs of dermatitis and eliminate the disease. How to treat an allergy to cold:
- conduct symptomatic therapy, which will help get rid of the manifestation of dermatitis (antihistamines - tablets and sprays);
- accelerate the healing of cracks and wet spots with ointments, gels, creams;
- take vitamins, eliminate dysbiosis;
- revise cosmetic skin care - include oily creams, gentle cleansers.
Antihistamines for cold allergies are popular; they help stop vesicles and relieve redness. Of the available emit Telfast, Loratadin, Tavegil and Suprastin. To improve blood circulation, special drugs are prescribed that increase blood microcirculation. For the treatment of infectious foci, the possible causes of dermatitis, antibiotics, bacteriophages, sorbents, antiparasitic agents are used. Therapists prescribe vitamins E, C, PP, A to increase immunity.
The ointment for cold dermatitis will help soothe inflammation on the skin and atopic dermatitis. Without a doctor’s prescription, you can use zinc ointment, Bepanten, Skin-cap or Fenistil gel - they eliminate the manifestations of allergies and heal the itchy areas. When contacting a doctor, you can get a prescription with antihistamine ointments containing hormones, you need to use them strictly according to the instructions, not exceeding the number and duration of the course. A fat cream will help protect the skin from dermatitis before cold exposure.
Treatment of cold dermatitis with folk remedies
Along with the traditional, cold dermatitis is treated with folk remedies to reduce the consequences:
- tincture to increase skin resistance to cold - mix elecampane, marshmallow root, licorice, pour boiling water and leave for 10 hours, drink 100 ml, in three divided doses;
- take dried and crushed shells of boiled chicken eggs - a teaspoon three times a day, contraindications - allergy to eggs and children;
- drink in the morning on an empty stomach a decoction of horsetail at 40 drops per month to eliminate signs of allergy;
- before cold exposure and at night, take a decoction of raspberry root.
It is completely impossible to protect yourself from the disease, but the prevention of cold dermatitis will help cope with a partial manifestation of allergies. Recommended:
- half an hour before going out, grease your face and hands with a fat nourishing cream;
- go out in the cold only in warm clothes, a hat, a glove, protect your face with a volume scarf;
- with exacerbation of dermatitis, do not drink cold water, chilled drinks, foods;
- moisturize the skin of the hands during the day, install a humidifier in the house to eliminate dust - a source of allergies;
- following a diet prescribed by an allergist;
- in the fall to drink a course of vitamins;
- exclude allergens from food from the diet - citrus juices, chocolate, nuts, radish, horseradish;
- after consultation with a gastroenterologist, take a course of taking Essentuki mineral water to eliminate a violation of the digestive tract - a possible cause of dermatitis;
- temper the body and hands with a contrast shower or baths to increase the body's resistance to cold;
- treat infections, pathologies - the causes of dermatitis.
Photo of a cold allergy on hand
Video: Cold Allergy Treatment
Elena, 41 years old Before the onset of symptoms of urticaria on myself after going out in the cold, I did not know whether there is an allergy to cold. It turned out that this is a common pathology. I could not walk in the cold for more than five minutes - my hands and face began to itch, spots appeared, cracked and hurt. I started taking antihistamines, it helped to survive the winter without dermatitis.
Maria, 38 years old. I am allergic to snow, so I go south to my sister every winter to avoid unpleasant symptoms. There I live without worries, forget about the terrible itchy blisters that have accompanied me for the past 10 years. I think I’ll go to the doctor for treatment, but I don’t want to “poison” the body with different chemicals to get rid of dermatitis.
Anton, 23 years old Last winter, I first showed symptoms of a cold allergy. At first I didn’t understand why blisters form on my face, which pass after entering the heat, but then I read an article in a magazine. I went to the doctor, who revealed a latent infection in me, which caused dermatitis. By eliminating it, I no longer worry about myself, but I raise immunity.Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.