Infectious erythema in children and adults - symptoms and treatment

Erythema, as a viral disease, manifests itself in the form of a skin rash and signs of a cold. In most cases, children are affected by this infection. Infection occurs by airborne droplets. In addition to age, the appearance of erythema may be associated with blood diseases.

What is erythema infectious

Infectious erythema is a disease caused by parvovirus B19. The fifth disease in children (doctors call it erythema) in the group with herpes, rubella, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus infection, which pose a serious danger to pregnant women (this is a group of so-called TORCH infections). It took specialists time to study the causes and clinical picture of the pathology.

Medical statistics indicate that the disease occurs at the age of 4-11 years. In adults, it is much less common, but it is very difficult, especially in women aged 30-35 years. He poses the greatest danger during pregnancy for periods of 10-26 weeks, infection leads to intoxication and death of the fetus, termination of pregnancy.

Symptoms of erythema infectious

The effect of parvovirus B19 on the body causes symptoms of infectious erythema, they are similar to the condition with a cold. The patient has sneezing, coughing, headache, weakness, loss of appetite, chills. After a few days, a rash appears on the skin, the patient has severe muscle weakness, fever up to 38 degrees (the indicator may be higher), headache intensifies, the disease may be accompanied by abdominal pain.

The appearance of a rash on the skin occurs on the fifth day of the disease and manifests itself in stages:

  • bright red spots appear on the cheeks;
  • may extend to the chin and forehead;
  • after a few days may disappear;
  • reappears almost throughout the body in the form of red spots that spread rapidly;
  • causes severe itching and lasts about seven days;
  • after exposure to the sun, it lasts much longer and reappears.

Symptoms of viral erythema in children

The disease can be of several types, one of them is viral erythema. The manifestations of each type of ailment look specific and have certain causes. The main symptoms of viral erythema in children include runny nose, cough, chills, malaise, red spots on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, skin. The disease manifests itself in children 4-12 years old, the virus is transmitted by airborne droplets to other children and adults.

After 3 days, the rash appears on the skin, joints are affected, this is the second phase of the disease. It has complications in the form of fever, palpitations. In the course of the infection, bone marrow tissue can be affected, this is accompanied by a violation of the formation of red blood cells (red blood cells). The condition with the manifestation of complications lasts about 10 days. This is an acute severe skin infection that requires attention and proper treatment.

Causes of Infectious Erythema

The ingress of the erythema virus into the body of healthy children can cause small rashes, while a slight malaise may be noted, but the condition quickly stabilizes, as with other childhood diseases. A disease occurs only once, after which a person develops immunity for life. The causes of infectious erythema (or exanthema) occurring in severe form may be:

  • weakened immune defenses;
  • chronic diseases;
  • blood problems.

Forms of Infectious Erythema

The main forms of infectious erythema are:

  • undifferentiated;
  • erythema chamera;
  • infectious Rosenberg;
  • erythema multiforme in children;
  • sudden
  • knotty.

Each form of the disease develops differently. For example, erythema chamera, is relatively easy. The incubation period is 9-14 days. Fever does not occur, body temperature remains normal. Rashes are localized exclusively on the skin of the face, the progression of the disease is characterized by the fusion of the individual elements of the rash, of which a butterfly configuration is formed.

Infectious erythema treatment

The principle of treatment of infectious erythema is the same as with known microbial diseases. Treatment is carried out at home, special quarantine measures are not expected. It is worth starting treatment at the first sign of general malaise. The patient is prescribed bed rest, the use of fluid in large quantities, and the use of antiviral drugs. Only in case of complications (otitis media, tonsillitis, pneumonia and others) can antibiotics be prescribed.

The disease can progress in the form of a second, third wave of rashes, this is a characteristic feature of erythema and is not an indicator of the severity of the patient's condition. During the disease, you can not take a hot bath and be in the sun, these factors provoke repeated rashes. After the rash appears, the patient is not contagious and can lead a normal lifestyle in the absence of complications.

In a hospital, patients with blood diseases and immunocompromised, pregnant women are being treated. In this case, constant monitoring of blood parameters, the process of hematopoiesis and other laboratory tests is necessary. Pregnant women are prescribed additional ultrasound to monitor the condition of the fetus, detailed blood tests. Treatment should be prescribed correctly and always in a timely manner.

Treatment of infectious erythema in children

"Lace rash" is localized in the neck, upper limbs, on the trunk is a characteristic diagnostic sign. All measures for the treatment of infectious erythema in children are aimed at reducing the risk of complications. In the acute course of the disease, bed rest, the use of antipyretic, antimicrobial drugs, the use of a large amount of liquid, the treatment of the skin with antiseptic solutions and ointments in places of rashes are important for patients.

In a child, the manifestation of the disease is observed within 5-9 days. After the infection, the rash may reappear, the causes of its appearance may be:

  • overheating;
  • prolonged exposure to the sun;
  • hypothermia;
  • significant emotional stress;
  • intense exercise.

Forecast

The disease lasts 2-3 weeks, with proper treatment and adherence to the regimen, the prognosis is favorable: no complications, no fatal outcomes, there are no traces after the rash. Complications are observed in special cases and appear as a halt in the formation of red blood cells, this is a temporary phenomenon and there are no problems with blood formation in the future. If patients have blood diseases, with a weak immune system, their health condition seriously worsens, leading to bone marrow damage and the development of anemia.

Photo of erythema multiforme exudative

Video: Toxic erythema in children

Reviews

Olga, 24 years old. My four-year-old son had a slight fever and signs, like a cold. They gave him warm tea and put him to bed. In the morning they noticed red spots on the cheeks, on the neck, on the chest. The local doctor determined erythema. It is strange that the treatment is carried out with antiviral drugs, as with the common cold.
Anna, 54 years old. When my seven-year-old grandson woke up with bright red cheeks, we were seriously scared. His temperature was not high, he felt good. They didn’t even know about the existence of the “fifth disease”, which our local doctor determined.
Sergey, 30 years old. The disease belongs to the usual "childhood" and it proceeds easily, even the temperature may not rise, the main thing is to correctly diagnose. Unfortunately, my daughter was immediately sent to the infectious diseases department, a strong rash and fever appeared, and antibiotics were prescribed. The correct diagnosis was established later, they treated us incorrectly.
Ekaterina, 32 years old For kids this disease is not at all dangerous. My five-year-old daughter felt good even with a rash. Complained only of an itch in places of rashes. In general, at first we thought that it was an allergy, we could not understand what. Experience in determining this ailment is already available.
Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

Watch the video: Fifth Disease - Akron Children's Hospital video (February 2020).