An infectious herpes infection can be transmitted by contact and by airborne droplets. It is accompanied by pain and manifests spots on the body. The incubation period lasts for many years. The reason for the appearance is chickenpox. Herpes Zoster virus is in a nerve cell in a sleeping state, without causing various clinical manifestations.
What is shingles
Herpes zoster (according to ICD 10) is a viral infectious disease. When it is accompanied by pain, it looks like a rash. Mostly occurs in the elderly, in the autumn and winter. The cause and causative agent is chickenpox virus - herpes zoster (Herpes Zoster). At a young age, when the body encounters chickenpox, it does not disappear after treatment, but becomes latent and hides in the nerve cells of the posterior horns of the spinal cord, ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, cranial nerves. Damage to the posterior roots occurs.
Viral ganglioneuritis contributes to the activation of infection. The virus emerges from infected nerve cells, moving along axons. A hiding pathogen does not cause symptoms. When the human body is healthy and there are no problems with immunity, the virus does not appear in any way. After a long period, herpes zoster again enters the bloodstream and causes symptoms of shingles. If the baby is infected with the virus in the womb, IgM anti VZV antibodies and an increased level of IgG anti-VZV are detected in the analysis. This means that lymphoblast transformation tests are positive.
What causes the chickenpox virus to attack the body again? Among them are:
- the use of drugs that lower immunity (immunosuppressants, corticosteroid hormones);
- AIDS and HIV;
- ongoing stressful situations, constant overwork;
- oncology: tumors and lymphogranulomatosis;
- transplantation of organs and bone marrow.
What does tinea look like
The place of localization of the virus are nerve cells that are located throughout the body (intercostal nerve trunks, branches of the trigeminal nerve). Lichen appears on one side and occurs on the face, hands, stomach, head, in the genital area. You can recognize Herpes Zoster by spots that look like pink swelling. A few days later, a group of erythematous papules forms, which instantly turn into small vesicles. Their diameter is 2-5 mm. Inside is transparent content.
Among the atypical forms of shingles, 5 species are distinguished, all of them can be transmitted and require treatment. It:
- abortive - small manifestations of a rash;
- bullous - a combination of vesicles;
- hemorrhagic - the vesicles contain hemorrhagic exudate;
- gangrenous (necrotic) - with necrosis, scars;
- disseminated (generalized).
Herpes zoster - how it is transmitted
The pathogenesis of the disease is as follows: shingles is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets, contact, transplacental route. A person who infects another is sick with herpes zoster or chicken pox. The virus belongs to the category of neurodermatotropic, therefore, it is able to infect epithelial cells of the skin and nervous system. The virus is in all people who have had chickenpox or in contact with the patient. With a decrease in the immunological resistance of the body, the virus wakes up and activates again.
Symptoms of shingles in adults
To recognize the disease, you need to know what shingles are - the symptoms and treatment in adults are different. In people with severely suppressed immunity, the rash is located throughout the body. This life-threatening condition is characterized by damage to internal organs, nerve roots, organs of the nervous system, nerve nodes, membrane and substance of the brain. In young children, damage to the oral mucosa may occur. A rash appears in the gums in the form of vesicles, which quickly open and turn into sores.
In addition to herpetiform rashes on the skin and the symptoms preceding it, signs of shingles during exacerbation of the virus are noted:
- an increase in body temperature to febrile numbers (38-40 degrees);
- Nauseous and vomiting
- impaired consciousness;
- there is an increase in local lymph nodes.
If the virus is activated in the facial nerve, paralysis occurs, among the signs of which are distinguished:
- asymmetry of the face;
- the patient cannot pout, show teeth;
- a rash appears in the auricle.
Herpes Zoster - Initial Stage
For diagnosis and treatment, an analysis of PCR is prescribed. A few days before the appearance of rashes, a person thinks that he fell ill with the flu, but this is the initial stage of herpes zoster: causeless weakness, headache, chills, fatigue, fever to subfebrile numbers, digestive upset. Then a pain symptom occurs at the site of future rashes due to the nerve involved in the process. There is a burning sensation, itching, pain intensifies with a change in body position. There is redness of the skin, swelling, and after 3-5 days, rashes appear, as in the photo.
Rashes with shingles
A person feels unwell, symptoms and spots appear in the innervation zone of one or two adjacent spinal roots. Further, pink spots are converted into vesicles - this is the rash with herpes zoster. They appear only on one side: the vesicles on the right in the chest area cannot appear in exactly the same place on the left. Washing with pain is undesirable - this can lead to the transfer of infection to other areas. Rashes, such as in the photo, have the following characteristics:
- these are bubbles with transparent contents (if suppuration has occurred, then the contents are cloudy);
- the rash is located in groups near the nerve trunks;
- bubbles can combine with each other;
- when a rash appears, itching and pain may decrease slightly;
- after 7-14 days, new elements of the rash appear.
After a few days, the herpes vesicles begin to open, forming erosion. All stages of healing depriving a patient pass within 2 weeks. The epithelium acquires integrity, but the consequence remains - depigmentation in place of the former vesicle. This is a temporary phenomenon that will pass soon. The danger is the case when the human immunity is greatly reduced. Then, an infection of another type, streptococcus or staphylococcus, can stick to erosion. Such a phenomenon can lead to the development of pustules, and after their treatment, scars will remain on the skin.
Pain with shingles
Herpetic eruptions are characterized by the presence of severe pain. A person has a feeling of tingling, tingling, cutting, lumbago. After rashes, the pain may persist throughout the year. Doctors recommend resorting to painkillers. To relieve symptoms and severe pain with shingles, medications such as:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketorolac, naproxen, ibuprofen);
- tricyclic antidepressants;
- anticonvulsants - anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin);
- amantadine sulfate (PK-Merz);
- non-narcotic analgesics;
- immunoglobulins (zostevir);
- novocaine blockade;
- valaciclovir, acyclovir (against diseases of a viral nature);
- percutaneous electrical stimulation of the affected nerves;
- adequate analgesia (oxycodone, tramadol);
- capsaicin-based preparations (Mataren ointment plus).
How to treat shingles
Disease prevention must be done with the live Zostavax vaccine. You can cure a viral infection with tablets, folk remedies, smear with a mixture. To increase the effectiveness of the chosen method, treatment of herpes zoster should be combined with the right way of life: keep calm, have a good rest. It is worthwhile to eliminate the effect of sunlight on the patient. It is necessary to protect others from the possibility of infection: to give the patient all personal items. Non-traditional methods of treatment exist, such as conspiracy against lichen.
How to treat shingles at home
A full treatment of shingles at home is possible with the support of immunity, a balanced diet. Undiluted apple cider vinegar is applied in the form of compresses to the damaged area 5 times a day to get rid of itching and burning. To be treated, you can prepare a tincture of calendula and meadowsweet. As part of it, moisten gauze and apply 3 times a day for 10 minutes. A recipe for tincture of calendula and meadowsweet will remove the symptoms and help with the treatment. Ingredients:
- meadowsweet flowers - 2 tsp;
- calendula flowers - 100 g;
- vodka - 0.5 l.
Method of preparation and use:
- Pour flowers into a container and pour vodka.
- Close cover tightly.
- Put in a dark place for a month.
- Tincture (1 tsp) can be diluted in 150 ml of boiled water.
- For treatment, take three times a day.
Tinea versicolor - treatment with folk remedies
- Coltsfoot is a medicinal plant, the fresh leaves of which will help get rid of the symptoms. Before use, they need to be crushed to a pulp consistency. Apply to the affected area for 20 minutes. You can take mother-and-mahecha inside, eat 2-3 drops of grass juice and pour 150 ml of water (3 times a day, 60 minutes before meals).
- Treatment of shingles with folk remedies includes lubricating the rash with a decoction of unroasted buckwheat.
- If you mix tea tree oil with alcohol 1: 1, then a therapeutic compress will come out.
- Garlic treatment is also suitable if you turn it into mashed potatoes by adding water.
Treatment of shingles in the elderly
When taking drugs, emphasis should be placed on the suppression of the virus. Treatment of herpes zoster in the elderly occurs externally in the form of ointments and internally. Inside, antiviral drugs are taken for 14 days: analgesics, antihistamines. For the elderly, in the treatment of herpes, outdoor walks, a diet, vitamins for raising immunity are useful. It is necessary to avoid meeting with patients so that there is no relapse: the transmission route is contact and airborne. Infection can be transmitted through things and through the air.
Complications after herpes zoster
If you find yourself with symptoms, red spots, as in the photo, then the first thing to do is contact an infectious disease specialist, as unpleasant consequences may occur. If treatment is not started on time, the consequences of shingles can be dire. Among the common complications after lichen are:
- facial paralysis;
- long pain in the lesion;
- decreased visual acuity if herpes touched the area around the eyes;
- development of transverse myelitis;
- violation of urination.
Learn more about how chickenpox manifests itself in adults - home treatment and symptoms of the disease.
Video: Zoster virus
Margarita, 42 years old Symptoms of herpes zoster appeared on her back, she was very scared when she appeared and went to the doctor. He prescribed treatment: Acyclovir tablets (400 g 3 times a day). I had to drink for 10 days. There was Famciclovir. The treatment helped me, but without going to the doctor I would hardly be able to cure myself. No complications were observed.
Artem, 38 years old. There was a disease on the neck a few years ago. I did not know that with such symptoms you can’t swim. The infection has spread throughout the body. After treatment, a complication arose, postherpetic neuralgia began. Tebantin and Finlepsin helped a lot. The first has fewer side effects, but it is more expensive. The rest of the pain-relieving drugs did not help.Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.