With some types of diseases, fluid retention occurs in the body, and swelling of the hands, feet, and face appears. For symptomatic treatment, improvement of the patient's condition, special diuretics are used, which provoke an increased excretion of urine, which removes excess fluid and salts from the body. Diuretics or diuretics help to cope with the severe course of diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, obesity, cirrhosis, intracranial pressure, swelling of the walls of blood vessels, and are used for kidney diseases.
The principle of action of diuretics
Diuretic drugs are drugs of various chemical structures, which to a greater / lesser extent affect the increase in the intensity of the kidneys and, as a result, profuse urination. Thanks to them, the reabsorption (absorption) of salts and water is inhibited in the tubules of the kidneys, which leads to the rapid formation of urine and the excretion of these substances. There are drugs that act directly on the kidneys (renal), and drugs that promote increased fluid secretion, affecting other body systems (extrarenal).
Removing excess fluid along with sodium from the body, they relieve swelling, both external and internal, associated with diseases of the kidneys and liver, reduce the burden on the heart, and reduce blood pressure. In addition to the obvious positive effect, different drugs have a number of negative effects, so they should be taken only as directed by the doctor and at the indicated dosage. It is not recommended to buy diuretic drugs on your own, this can lead to complications:
- Removal of significant potassium reserves from the body. This mineral element helps to absorb carbohydrates, providing the body with energy, and is also involved in protein synthesis. The normal level of potassium provides an even correct rhythm of heartbeats, the necessary force of contractions of the heart muscle, and controls electrophysiological cardiac processes.
- Some diuretics can cause an imbalance of potassium with sodium, which leads to arrhythmia, tachycardia, the appearance of extrasystoles - in some cases, this leads to death.
- A lack of potassium leads to a constant feeling of muscle weakness, apathetic mood, numbness of the extremities, causes seizures and drowsiness. This can cause arterial hypotension (lowering blood pressure), severe dizziness, urinary retention, and constipation.
- Change in hormonal levels. Some drugs can lead to unpleasant consequences of a hormonal nature - this applies mainly to long-term unauthorized use. In this case, when taking diuretics in men, there is a risk of impotence, sometimes there is an increase in the mammary glands, and women risk a violation of the menstrual cycle and the appearance of facial hair.
- Individual reactions of the body. With uncontrolled use of diuretics, the following side effects may occur - urticaria, itching, allergies, subcutaneous hemorrhage, and a decrease in white blood cell count. Especially careful should be taken by their pregnant women, as well as people with diabetes - some diuretics are completely contraindicated in these groups of people. Diuretic drugs can contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus, as they increase cholesterol.
- Deterioration of the kidneys, heart. Diuretics create an additional burden on these organs, therefore, with prolonged use of diuretics, a deterioration can be observed.
When the use of diuretics is necessary
It is worth noting that the use of diuretics is usually carried out only in combination with other drugs. They are able to relieve severe symptoms of certain diseases, but can not affect the cause. They are prescribed for swelling from the following types of diseases: interstitial nephritis, acute, chronic glomerulonephritis, hypertension, heart failure, varicose veins, cirrhosis, liver vein disease, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, cancer, obesity.
The administration of diuretics is negatively affected when there is no obvious need for it - for weight loss, for sports purposes, in order to “dry out”. Doctors warn about the dangers of such methods of getting rid of excess weight: if in a healthy body there is no increased level of fluid or salts, water-salt balance may be disturbed by diuretics, which will lead to further health problems. The loss of kilograms in this way is justified only in severe obesity, during which excess fluid and sodium accumulate.
Reception for swelling of the legs, face and eyes
Edema is usually a symptom of a more serious disease or its development. Diuretic drugs in this case are taken only after its determination, depending on the affected system, the appearance and location of the swelling differs. In renal diseases, the localization of edema may be different, but mainly this is the area under the eyes. Most visible is the manifestation of the disease in the morning, only after waking up. If the lesion touches the kidneys, swelling of white color appears, soft - this indicates that the organs began to withdraw water with salts much worse.
Less common is allergic puffiness. The cause of the symptom is heart failure, with the disease, edema appears on the legs, usually in the evenings, after strong daytime stress. If the heart is healthy, the legs may swell from varicose veins. An unpleasant symptom can occur during pregnancy, with obesity, a number of other diseases - you should talk with a doctor about taking diuretic drugs, who will determine the root cause of the swelling, and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Diuretic drugs are not always necessary when edema appears, because they can talk not about internal pathology, but about a lifestyle. People who work hard are subject to a similar symptom. But in this case, diuretics are not needed - it is necessary to change the field of activity or reduce / increase its intensity.
From pressure with hypertension
Diuretic drugs are a popular treatment for high blood pressure. Due to the enhanced excretion of fluid through the urine, the load on the cardiovascular system is reduced, swelling passes. Doctors determine whether the patient is ill with a concomitant disease - obesity, diabetes, some diuretics are contraindicated in these diseases. Then a diuretic is prescribed in a small dosage. If the pressure begins to return to normal, the drug is prolonged in combination with other medicines for hypertension, otherwise the drug is stopped.
With heart failure
Heart failure is characterized by a large fluid retention in the body, swelling, shortness of breath, "bluish" skin color. The volume of blood pumped by the heart increases by 50%, it is not saturated enough with oxygen through the lungs, so it cannot fully nourish the body's systems. Constant oxygen starvation leads to the fact that the heart is overloaded, and the structure of the liver changes over time - it can no longer perform its functions efficiently. Following the liver, the work of the kidneys is disturbed, which poorly remove fluid and salts.
Some time after the administration of a diuretic drug, its effectiveness may decrease, therefore, doctors switch from prescribing medium-acting diuretics to the administration of stronger drugs. However, with the constant intake of diuretic drugs, resistance is formed, in which it is necessary to replace the diuretic or begin to administer it intravenously. Combined therapy with diuretics in heart failure leads to a significant improvement in the patient’s condition even in the most difficult cases, which ultimately affects life expectancy.
The main goal of taking diuretics during this disease is to relieve the symptoms of swelling, reduce the patient’s weight, and improve exercise tolerance. In the early stages, patients quickly get rid of the unpleasant consequences of heart failure, with severe damage to the cardiovascular system, treatment takes longer.
For weight loss
Diuretic drugs remove water from the body, which may well affect the figure, but it is important to understand that with a relatively normal weight, this only harms health. Taking them, you can not get rid of fat, only liquid is excreted. Severe dehydration from taking can plant a heart, upset the water-salt balance of the body, and the consequences of this violation can become irreversible. Doctors prescribe diuretics to lose weight only for obesity, but use diuretics, exclusively of plant origin.
Pregnancy is both a difficult and pleasant time for a woman, but edema becomes a frequent companion, especially in recent months. At the first symptoms of puffiness, the doctor begins to monitor the progress of the bearing of the child, because it can serve as a symptom of toxicosis, problems with the kidneys, liver, heart. A pregnant woman begins to follow a diet with a low salt content, but if the symptom does not help, the specialist prescribes therapy with diuretics - these can be synthetic or herbal substances.
Many pregnant women mistakenly think that natural fruits or herbs with a diuretic effect, taken without the recommendation of a doctor, will not do harm. However, even diuretics of plant origin are able to remove the salts necessary for the body, a lot of excess fluid, upset the material balance, which can negatively affect the development of the child. In no case should you consume the diuretic berries of strawberries, parsley root, and juniper fruits. Acceptable medicines:
- Kanefron tablets tablets. It has a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic effect. The drug is of herbal origin. With caution is taken at all stages of pregnancy.
- Phytolysin. It treats kidneys and urinary tract diseases. It does not have negative effects, but it is unacceptable to take it if there is an inflammatory process in the kidneys.
- Eufillin. It has a bronchodilator, diuretic effect. When prescribed during pregnancy, they are taken with caution, comparing the benefits for the woman and the fetus with the potential risk.
Doctors are extremely careful in prescribing to diabetics diuretic drugs of certain groups, and only if absolutely necessary. One of the safest medicinal diuretics if a patient has diabetes is Indapamide, which removes potassium, magnesium, sodium. To replenish the balance of necessary substances while taking a diuretic, a person needs to eat foods with potassium, a lot of fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts. There is a derivative, Indapamide - Indapamide Retart, which has shown the highest effectiveness and safety during use in diabetes.
The new generation diuretics have become more advanced, therefore, have much less side effects. In order to choose a good drug for the patient, the doctor must conduct an examination that will help identify the causes of the disease, the exact condition of the patient. Specialists prescribe modern medicinal diuretics of both plant and synthetic origin, depending on the severity of the disease and the tolerability of certain components to patients.
Herbal diuretics have been known since ancient times when there were no synthetic preparations for improved fluid excretion. Despite the fact that such diuretics are less effective, they do not have side effects for a long time, but a doctor should prescribe them, depending on the nature of the disease. Herbal remedies:
- Birch infusion. It is taken for diseases of the kidneys and heart.
- Decoction of lingonberry leaves. It has a diuretic, anti-inflammatory effect.
- A decoction of bearberry leaves. It treats the bladder, urinary tract. It can not be used for kidney disease and during pregnancy.
- Rosehip tea. Creates a diuretic, restorative effect, useful after diseases with antibiotics.
To diuretics of strong and medium exposure include thiazide, thiazide-like, loop agents. Loop preparations of diuretics are considered the most powerful, they are used in extreme cases when an urgent effect is needed. The first two groups of diuretic drugs effectively reduce pressure, cause fewer adverse reactions. Strong drugs:
- Furosemide, loop diuretic. It is used for severe heart failure, hypertension. Possible adverse reactions of the drug: increased sugar levels, dizziness, increased uric acid in the blood, gout, dehydration. It is not recommended for pregnant women, people with kidney failure, patients with lupus, diabetics, children.
- Torasemide, loop diuretic. It is used for essential hypertension, cardiac, renal failure. Side effects: increased glucose, uric acid, blood lipids, muscle cramps, arterial hypotension, headache, allergic reactions. Contraindications: renal failure with anuria, arterial hypotension, arrhythmia. Unknown reactions during pregnancy and lactation.
Potassium-sparing diuretic drugs are designed to maintain the necessary level of potassium in the body, removing excess fluid and salt. Potassium-sparing drugs include aldosterone antagonists. These diuretics (for example, Veroshpiron) block the action of the hormone aldosterone, which is responsible for retaining salt and water in the body. During the intake of such funds, the important problem of preserving potassium is solved - its level remains the same.
Harmless products for children
Doctors try to carefully prescribe diuretics for children, in small dosages and intermittently, so that the child can replenish the potassium supply, if it is not a potassium-sparing drug. Popular diuretics for children are Veroshpiron (a potassium-sparing group), Hypothiazide (a group of thiazide and thiaz-like diuretics), Furosemide (loop group). If the case does not require the appointment of a synthetic drug, children are prescribed herbal remedies.
Reviews on the effectiveness and harms of diuretics
Masha, 35 years old: - "In the mornings, the eyelids began to swell strongly, terribly worried about this. I drank a little lingonberry tea every day like a diuretic. Slowly helped, but it was effective and safe."
Valentina, 28 years old: “During pregnancy last year, severe swelling of the legs began, immediately ran to the doctor. It turned out that everything was in order with health - the body simply could not cope with the load. They prescribed the diuretic phytolysin, drank it. I was nervous that there would be side effects. but nothing worked out. "
Valentina, 41 years old: - "I have an initial stage of hypertension.I took a small dose of a thiazide diuretic, helped well, I feel much better. At the same time I drink vitamins and get treatment; over time, the disease torments less. "
Ivanna, 36 years old: - “The child had swelling several years ago, the doctor determined that there were kidney problems. Together with the droppers they drank a diuretic medicine - Veroshpiron. It helped well, the kidneys were cured.”Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.