Colon cancer - symptoms and stages

A malignant tumor on the epithelium of the mucous membrane develops from an adenoma located in the intestinal region. Improper nutrition leads to the appearance of carcinogens in the colon, which, under the influence of bacteria, provoke the formation of cancer cells. It is important to know the symptoms of the pathology in order to seek help in time.

Stages of the disease

The defeat of the large intestine is characterized by the severity of the course, unfavorable prognoses. The patient can be saved at an early stage of the disease. Doctors have taken such stages of cancer development:

  1. First one. The formation is located on the submucous, mucous membrane of the intestine. Prevalence is limited.
  2. Second A. The tumor occupies a large part of the intestinal circumference, there is no germination through the wall. Lymph nodes are not affected.
  3. Second B. Penetration through the wall begins. Lymph nodes without changes.

As the process develops, the tumor grows. It is customary to distinguish the following stages of cancer:

  1. Third A. A pathological formation grows through the wall without causing metastases.
  2. Third B. There is an increase in size. Metastases to the lymph nodes appear.
  3. Fourth. There is an extensive focus of the tumor process. Germination occurs in neighboring tissues. Distant organs metastases appear.

Colon Cancer Symptoms

This part of the digestive tract has a duration of about four meters. Tumor formation of the large intestine can be detected in any part of it. The following departments are distinguished:

  • On the right is the cecum, which ends with the appendix, the ascending colon.
  • The transverse colon section is horizontally located at the top.
  • On the left is the descending rim.
  • Down to the pelvic region, the sigmoid colon and a short rectal section ending in the anus.

Signs of colon cancer in women are more likely to occur in the colon. For men, pathologies of the straight part are characteristic. Clinical symptoms depend on the location of the neoplasm. Patients sometimes complain of the appearance of:

  • intestinal disorders;
  • pain syndrome;
  • secretions with blood, pus, mucus;
  • intestinal obstruction;
  • deterioration in general condition;
  • decreased performance;
  • weaknesses.

First signs

Colon cancer in the initial stage develops asymptomatically. A neoplasm can be detected accidentally in the diagnosis of other pathologies. As the disease progresses, the first symptoms of cancer appear. These include hypochromic anemia. A patient with a pathology sometimes notices:

  • the appearance of blood in the stool;
  • aching, dull abdominal pain;
  • lack of appetite;
  • bloating;
  • increase in body temperature;
  • rectal bleeding;
  • weight loss.

Symptoms of colon cancer at an early stage often resemble signs of poisoning. The patient postpones a visit to the doctor for diagnosis. The patient may experience:

  • rumbling of the abdomen;
  • alternating constipation and diarrhea;
  • a feeling of fullness in the stomach;
  • nausea;
  • increased gas formation;
  • bouts of vomiting;
  • belching;
  • cutting, spasmodic, aching pain;
  • aversion to food;
  • pallor;
  • malaise.

Local manifestations

The growth of tumor formation provokes the onset of symptoms depending on the localization of pathological processes. When diagnosing, doctors identify signs of cancer. Possible manifestations:

Localization of the neoplasm

Right

Left

General local symptoms

High body temperature

Hypochromic Anemia

Pain syndrome
Dark color of blood

Blood clots during bowel movements

Persistent constipation

Abdominal discomfort

The appearance of blood during bowel movements

Feeling of incomplete bowel movement

Ribbon-shaped stool

Symptoms of colon cancer in men are often observed with tumors located in the direct section. The following symptoms may signal the presence of a neoplasm:

Localization of the neoplasm

Right

Left

General local symptoms

Fever

Intestinal bleeding; Ability to palpate swelling during palpation

Bloating

Flatulence

Cramping pain

Decreased appetite

General weakness

Hidden blood in feces

Defecation disorder

General symptoms

With the appearance of cancer in any part of the colon, symptoms occur that are independent of the location of the neoplasm. The course of the disease requires energy. A tumor, disrupting the absorption of beneficial substances, has an effect on the processes occurring in the body. Cancer is characterized by such general symptoms:

  • hemoglobin decrease;
  • the development of anemia;
  • dizziness;
  • weakness;
  • headache.

A patient with bowel cancer can detect the following symptoms of a pathological condition:

  • sharp loss of body weight;
  • lack of appetite;
  • the appearance of blood during bowel movements;
  • decreased performance;
  • deterioration of the skin;
  • fragility of the nail plates;
  • aversion to the smell of food;
  • hair loss;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • disruption of the work of other organs (in the presence of metastases).

Diagnostic criteria for colon cancer

Symptoms of tumor formation can be determined by the doctor during the examination of the patient. There are two primary diagnostic methods. One method is tapping. Research with percussion has the features:

  • reveals a dull sound above the neoplasm;
  • does not diagnose blind lesions.

Good results are obtained by conducting a digital examination, although there are limitations for use. The method helps to identify tumors located in the rectum. The doctor inserts the index finger in the glove into the anus and examines the lower intestine. For the procedure, the patient is located:

  • on elbows and knees;
  • on the back, legs bent, pressed to the stomach;
  • on the side with bent hip, knee joints.
Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

Watch the video: How does colon cancer start? (February 2020).